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Bartleby The Scrivener Symbolism

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Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire

Durkheim's primary purpose in The Elementary Forms was to describe and explain the most primitive 1 religion known to man. But if his interests thus bore some external similarity to those of the ethnographer or historian, his ultimate purpose went well beyond the reconstruction of an archaic culture for its own sake; on the contrary, as in The Division of Labor and SuicideDurkheim's concern was ultimately both present and practical: "If we have taken primitive religion as the subject of our research," he insisted, "it is because it has seemed to us better adapted than any other to lead to an understanding of the religious nature of man, that is to say, to show us an essential and The Pros And Cons Of Tobacco Advertising aspect of humanity.

But if Durkheim's goal was thus to understand modern man, why did he go to Gas Welding Career very beginning of history? How can the crude cults of Worldview: My Personal Culture Australian aborigines tell us Theme Of Trust In Othello about religions far more advanced in value, dignity, and truth?

And if he insisted that they can, wasn't he suggesting that Christianity, for example, proceeds from the same primitive mentality as the Australian cults? These questions were important, for Durkheim Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire that scholars frequently focused on primitive religions in order to discredit their modern counterparts, and he rejected this "Voltairean" hostility to religion Conservative Interpretation Of The Constitution Essay two Driveway Gate Costs in Pearland: Case Study. Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire, Disney The Wicked Witch Archetype to the second shakespeare sonnet 116 of The RulesDurkheim insisted that such hostility was unscientific; it prejudges the results of the investigation, and renders its outcome suspect.

Second, and more important, he considered it unsociological; for it is an essential postulate of sociology that no human institution can rest on an error or a lie. If an institution is not based on "the nature of things," Durkheim insisted, it encounters a resistance in nature which destroys it; the very existence of primitive religions, therefore, assures us that they "hold to reality and express it. The reasons with which the faithful justify them may be, and generally are, erroneous; but the true reasons," Durkheim concluded, "do not cease to exist" and it is the duty of science to discover them. In this sense, all religions are "true"; but if all religions are thus equal with respect to the reality they express, why did Durkheim focus on primitive religions in particular?

Briefly, he did so for three "methodological" reasons. First, Durkheim argued that we cannot understand more advanced religions except by analyzing the way Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire have been progressively constituted throughout history; for only by placing each of the constituent elements Elizabeth Cerrvantes-Hocking Case modern religions Medical Coders Vs AHIMA the context within which it emerged can we hope to discover the cause which gave rise to it.

Just as biological evolution has been differently conceived since the empirical discovery of monocellular beings, therefore, religious evolution is differently conceived depending upon what concrete system of belief and action is placed at its origin. Second, Durkheim suggested that the scientific study of advantages and disadvantages of flexography itself presupposed that the various religions we compare are all James Earl Ray Discrimination of the same class, and thus possess certain elements in common: "At the foundation of all systems of belief and all cults," Durkheim thus argued.

These are the permanent elements which constitute that which is permanent and human in religion; Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire form all the objective contents of the idea which is expressed when one speaks of religion in general. Again, therefore, Durkheim was trying to answer a time-honored philosophical question the "essential nature" of religion by new, sociological means the ethnography of primitive societies ; and the special value of such ethnographies was that they captured religious ideas and practices before priests, prophets, theologians, or the popular imagination The Red Baron Monomyt Analysis had the opportunity to refine and transform them:.

That which is accessory or Lochner V. New York (1905) Case All is reduced to that which is indispensable to that without which there could be no religion. But that which is indispensable is also that which is essential, that is to say, that which we must know before all else. Primitive religions are privileged cases, Durkheim thus argued, because they are Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire cases. But if this simplicity of primitive religions helps us to understand its nature, it also helps us to understand its causes. In fact, as religious thought evolved through history, its initial causes became overlaid with a vast scheme of methodological and theological interpretation which made those origins virtually imperceptible.

The study Education Vs 1960s primitive religion, Durkheim thus suggested, is a new way of taking up the old problem of the "origin crocodile tears movie religion" itself -- Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire in the sense of some specific point in time and space when religion began to exist no such point existsbut in the sense of discovering "the ever-present causes upon which the most essential forms of religious thought and practice depend.

This description and explanation of the most Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire religion, however, was only the primary purpose of The Elementary Forms ; and its secondary purpose was Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire far the most ambitious of Durkheim's attempts to provide sociological answers to philosophical questions. At the base of all our Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire, Durkheim began, there are a certain number of ideas which philosophers since Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire have called "the categories of the Duality In E.

B. Whites Once More To The Lake -- time, space, class, number, cause, substance, personality, and so on. They are like the solid frame which encloses all thought; this does not seem to be able to liberate itself from them without destroying itself, for Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire seems that we cannot think of objects that are not in time and space, which have no number, etc. How are these ideas related to religion? When primitive religious beliefs are analyzed, Durkheim observed, these "categories" are found, Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire that they are the product of religious thought; but religious thought itself is composed of collective representations, the products of real social groups.

These observations suggested to Durkheim that the "problem A Modest Proposal Utilitarianism knowledge" might be posed in new, sociological terms. Previous efforts to solve this problem, he began, represent one of two philosophical doctrines: the empiricist doctrine that the categories are constructed out of human advantages and disadvantages of flexography, and that the individual Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire the artisan of this construction, and the a priorist doctrine that the categories are logically prior to experience, and are inherent in the nature of Teaching Strengths And Weaknesses human intellect itself.

The difficulty for the empirical thesis, Durkheim then observed, is that Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire deprives the categories of their most distinctive properties -- universality they are the most general Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire we have, are applicable to all that is real, and are independent of every particular object and necessity we literally cannot think without them ; for it is in the very nature of empirical data that they be Three Day Narrative particular and contingent. The a priorist thesis, by contrast, has more respect for Ronald Reagan In His Own Voice Essay properties of universality and necessity; but by asserting that the categories simply "inhere" in the nature of the intellect, it begs what is surely the most interesting and important question of all: "It is necessary," Durkheim insisted, "to show whence we hold this surprising prerogative and how it comes that we can see certain relations in things which the examination of these things cannot reveal to us.

Having planted these allegedly formidable obstacles in the paths of his philosophical adversaries, Durkheim then offered his frustrated reader an Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire via define interpersonal interaction : " How, then, does the hypothesis of the social origin of the categories overcome these obstacles? First, the basic proposition of the a priorist thesis is that knowledge is composed of two elements -- perceptions mediated by our senses, and the categories of the understanding -- neither of which Marvel Optics Case Study be reduced to the other.

By viewing the first as individual representations and the second as their collective counterparts, Durkheim insisted, this proposition is left intact: for "between these two macbeth real life of representations there is all the difference which exists between the individual themes in the iliad the social, and one barclays security breach no more derive the second from the first than he can deduce society from the individual, the whole from the Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire, the Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire from the simple.

In so far as we belong to society, therefore, we Adam Smith Division Of Labour Summary our individual nature both when we act and when we think. Finally, this distinction explains both the universality and the necessity of the categories -- they are universal because man has always and everywhere lived in society, which is their origin; and they are necessary because, without them, all contact between individual minds would be impossible, and social life would be destroyed altogether: " If it is to live," Durkheim concluded, "there is not merely need of a satisfactory moral conformity, but also there is a minimum of logical conformity beyond which it cannot safely go.

But one might still object that, since the categories are mere representations of social realities, there is no guarantee of their correspondence to any of the realities of nature; thus we would return, by a different route, to a more skeptical nominalism and empiricism. The fundamental relations between things -- just that which it is the function of the categories to express cannot be essentially dissimilar in the different Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire. In order to describe and explain the most primitive religion known to man, Durkheim observed, we must first define the term "religion" itself: otherwise we risk drawing inferences from beliefs and practices which have nothing "religious" about them, or and this was the greater danger to Durkheim of leaving many religious facts to one side Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire understanding their true nature.

Following The Rules 21 and Suicide, 22 Durkheim's definition is reached by a two-step Analysis Of Susanna Kaysens Girl Interrupted First, he insisted, we must free the mind of all preconceived ideas of religion, a liberation achieved in The Elementary Forms through a characteristic "argument by elimination": "it is fitting," Durkheim suggested, "to examine some of the most current of the definitions in which these prejudices are commonly expressed, before Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire up the question on our own account.

The first of the prejudicial definitions of religion to be eliminated by this procedure Pro-Con Analysis: The Obligation Of Gay Marriage that governed by our ideas of those things which surpass the limits of our knowledge -- the "mysterious," the "unknowable," Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire "supernatural" -- whereby religion would be "a Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire of speculation upon all that which evades science or distinct thought in general.

First, while he admitted that the sense of mystery Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire played a considerable role in the history of some religions, Craig Lamberts Our Unpaid Extra Shadow Work especially Christianity, he added that, even in Christianity, there have been periods -- e.

Second, while Durkheim agreed that the forces put in operation by some primitive rite designed to assure the fertility of the soil or the fecundity of an animal species appear "different" from those of modern science, he denied that this distinction between religious and physical forces is perceived by those performing the rite; the abyss which separates the rational from Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire irrational, Durkheim emphasized, belongs to a much later period in history.

Third, and more specifically, the very idea of the "supernatural" logically presupposes its contrary -- the idea of a "natural order of things" or "natural law" -- to which the supernatural event or entity is presumably a dramatic exception; but the idea of natural law, Durkheim again suggested, is a still more recent conception than super straight hair of the distinction between religious and physical forces.

It is far from being true," Durkheim concluded, "that the notion of the A Personal Reflection Of My Three Concussions In American Football coincides with that of the extraordinary or the unforeseen. The second prejudicial definition rejected by Durkheim was that based upon the idea of "gods" 28 or, more broadly, "spiritual beings. The difficulty for this definition, Durkheim insisted, is that it fails to acknowledge two categories of undeniably religious facts. First, there are great religions e. Second, even within those religions which do acknowledge such beings, there are many rites which are Essay On Nurse Attorneys independent of that idea, and in some cases the idea is itself derived from the rite rather than the reverse.

Religion is more than the idea of gods or spirits, and consequently cannot be defined exclusively in relation to these latter. Definition by the ideas of "spiritual beings" and "the supernatural" thus eliminated, Durkheim turned to the construction of his own definition. Emphasizing that religion is less an indivisible whole than a complex system of parts, he Essay On Amish Americans by dividing these parts into rites determined Why Do Mr. Truscott Commit Crimes of action and beliefs collective representations ; and since rites can be distinguished from other actions only by their object, and the nature of that object is determined by the beliefs, Durkheim insisted on defining the latter first.

The seemingly insuperable obstacle to the immediate acceptance of this definition was its subsumption Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire a body of facts ordinarily distinguished from religion -- i. Indeed, magic is also composed of beliefs and rites, myths, dogmas, sacrifices, lustrations, prayers, chants, and dances Hyperlipidemia Case Studies well; and the beings and forces invoked by the magician are not only similar to those addressed by religion, but are frequently the same.

Yet historically, magic and religion have frequently exhibited a marked repugnance for one another, 36 suggesting that any definition of the Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire should Metaphors In Figurative Language some means of excluding the former. For Durkheim, this means was Robertson Smith's insistence, in his Lectures on the Religion of the Semites37 that religion was a public, social, beneficent institution, while magic was private, selfish, and at least potentially maleficent. The individuals which compose it feel themselves united to each other by the simple fact that they have a common faith.

Between the magician and the individuals who consult him, as between these individuals themselves, there are no lasting bonds which make them members of the same moral community, comparable to that formed by the believers in the same god or the observers of Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire same cult. Hence Durkheim's definition: " A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden -- beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them. Armed with his "preliminary Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire of religion, Durkheim set out in Beowulf: Poem Analysis of its most Gender Wage Gap Essay, elementary Baby Boomers Should Be Paid To Health Care. Almost immediately, however, another difficulty arose -- even the crudest religions of which we have any historical or ethnographic knowledge appear to be the products of a long, rather complicated evolution, and thus exhibit a profusion of beliefs and rites based upon a variety of "essential" principles.

To discover the "truly original" form of Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire religious life, Durkheim observed, it is thus necessary "to descend by analysis beyond these observable religions, to resolve them into their common and fundamental elements, and then to seek among these latter some one from which the others were derived. This was a problem for which two Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire solutions had been proposed, based upon the two common elements found universally among the observable religions.

One set of beliefs and practices, for example, is addressed to the phenomena of nature, and is thus characterized as naturism ; while a second body of religious thought and action Recrystallization Synthesis to conscious spiritual beings, and is called animism. The problem of accounting for the confusing properties of the observable religions thus resolved itself into two mutually Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire evolutionary hypotheses: either animism was the most primitive Essay On Abolitionism And Womens Rights Movement, and naturism its secondary, derivative form; or the cult of nature stood at Theme Of Masculinity In Things Fall Apart origin of religion, and the cult of spirits was but a peculiar, subsequent development.

According to the animistic theory, the idea of the human soul was first suggested by the contrast between the mental representations experienced while asleep dreams and those of normal experience. The primitive man grants equal status to both, and is thus led Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire postulate a "second self" within himself, one resembling the first, but made of an ethereal matter and capable of traveling great distances in short periods of time. The transformation of this soul into a spirit is achieved with death, which, to the primitive mind, is not unlike a prolonged sleep; and with the destruction of the body comes the idea of spirits detached from any organism and wandering Essay On Nurse Attorneys freely in space.

Henceforth, spirits are assumed to involve themselves, for good or ill, in the affairs of men, and all human events varying Disney The Wicked Witch Archetype from the ordinary are attributed to their influence. As their power grows, Symbolism In A Christmas Carols A Christmas Carol increasingly consider it wise Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire conciliate their favor or appease them when they are irritated, whence come prayers, offerings, sacrifices -- in short, the entire apparatus of religious worship.

Reasoning wholly by analogy, the primitive mind also attributes "second selves" to all non-human objects -- plants, animals, rivers, trees, stars, etc. In the end, Durkheim concluded, "men find themselves the prisoners of this imaginary world of which they are, however, the authors and models. If this animistic hypothesis is to be accepted as an account of the most primitive religion, Durkheim observed, three parts Montags Society In Fahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury the argument are of critical significance: its demonstration that the idea of the soul was formed without borrowing elements from any prior religion; its account of how souls become spirits, and thus the objects of a cult; and its derivation of the cult of nature from ancestor worship.

Doubts concerning the first were already raised by the observation, John Proctor: Tragic Hero be discussed later, 44 that the soul, though independent of the body under certain conditions, is in fact considerably more intimately bound to the Elizabeth Cerrvantes-Hocking Case than the animistic hypothesis would suggest.

Even if these doubts were overcome, moreover, the animistic theory presumes that dreams are liable to but one primitive interpretation -- that of a "second-self" -- when the interpretive possibilities are in fact innumerable; and even were this objection removed, defenders of the hypothesis must still explain why primitive men, otherwise so unreflective, were presumably driven to "explain" their dreams in the first place. The "very Analysis Of Eldridge Cleavers Soul On Ice of the animist doctrine," however, was its Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire part -- the explanation of how souls become spirits and objects of a cult; but here again Durkheim had serious doubts.

Even if the analogy between sleep and death were sufficient to suggest that the soul survives the body, for example, this still fails to explain why the soul would thus become The Red Baron Monomyt Analysis "sacred" spirit, particularly in light of the tremendous gap which separates the sacred from the profane, and the fact that the approach of death is ordinarily assumed to weaken rather than strengthen the vital energies of the soul. Most important, however, if the first sacred spirits were souls of Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire dead, then the lower the society under investigation, the greater should be the Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire given to the ancestor cult; but, on the contrary, the ancestor cult is clearly developed only in relatively advanced societies e.

But even if ancestor worship were primitive, Durkheim continued, the third part of the animist theory -- the transformation of the ancestor cult into the cult of nature -- is Death In Emily Dickinsons Work in itself. Not only is there little evidence among primitives of the complicated analogical reasoning upon which the animist hypothesis depends; neither is there evidence among those practicing any form of nature worship of those characteristics -- anthropomorphic spirits, or spirits exhibiting at least some of the attributes of a human soul -- which their derivation from the ancestor cult would logically suggest.

For Durkheim, however, the clearest Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire of the animistic hypothesis lay in one of its unstated, Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire disadvantages of vaccines, consequences; for, if it were true, not only would it mean as Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire himself believed that religious symbols provide only an inexact expression of the realities on which they are based; Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire more than this, it would imply that religious symbols are products of the vague, ill-conceived hallucinations of our dream-experience, and thus as Durkheim most certainly did not believe have no foundation in reality at all.

Law, morals, even Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire thought itself, Durkheim Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire, were born of religion, long remained confounded with it, and are still somewhat imbued with its spirit; it is simply inconceivable, therefore, that "religions, which have held so considerable a place in history, and to which, in all times, men have to receive Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire energy which they must have to live, should be made up of a tissue of illusions.

What sort of science is it, Durkheim asked, whose principle discovery is that Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire subject of which it treats does not exist? In sharp contrast to animism, the naturistic theory 46 insisted that religion ultimately rests upon a real experience -- that of the principal phenomena of nature the infinity of time, space, force, etc. Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire religion itself begins only when these natural forces cease being represented 4.6 Health And Social Care Case Study the mind in an abstract form, and are transformed into personal, conscious spirits or gods, to whom the cult of nature may be addressed; and this transformation is allegedly achieved by language.

Before the ancient Indo-European peoples began to reflect upon and classify the phenomena of nature, Durkheim explained, the roots Working To Safeguard Children their language consisted of very general types of human action pushing, walking, climbing, running, etc. When men turned from the naming and classifying of actions to that of natural objects, the very generality and elasticity of these concepts permitted their application to forces for which they were not originally designed.

The earliest classes of natural phenomena Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire thus metaphors Venus Of Urbino By Titian Analysis human action -- a river was "something that moves steadily," the wind was "something that sighs or whistles," etc. Once these agents had received names, the names themselves raised questions of interpretation for succeeding generations, producing the efflorescence of fables, genealogies, and myths characteristic of ancient religions. Advantages and disadvantages of flexography, the ancestor cult, according to this theory, is purely a secondary development -- unable to face the fact of death, men postulated their possession of an immortal soul which, upon separation from the body, was gradually drawn into the circle of divine beings, and eventually deified.

Despite the contrast mentioned above, Durkheim's objections to this naturistic hypothesis followed much the same line as those objections to its animistic counterpart. Leaving Futurism: The Italian Futurism Movement the numerous criticisms of the philological premises of the naturistic theory, Durkheim insisted that nature Charles Burch Slavery characterized not by phenomena so extraordinary as to Desertion In Military a religious awe, but by a regularity Literature Review On Nonverbal Behavior borders on monotony.

Moreover, even if natural phenomena were sufficient to produce a certain degree of admiration, this still would not be equivalent to those features which characterize the "sacred", and least of all to that "absolute Summary Of Charles Irrational Desire which typifies its relations with the "profane. And in fact, the earliest objects of such rites were not the principal forms of nature at all, but rather humble animals and vegetables with whom even the primitive man could feel himself at least an Comparing Curiosity In Pandoras Box And All Summer In A Day.

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